Karan Sharma

sshuttle - A better ssh tunnel

3 minutes (698 words)

🔗The Motivation

Sometime back I had to access a Kubernetes API server which was firewalled to a private VPC network. I didn’t want to setup a separate bastion instance just to access this cluster, cause TBH bastions are kinda redundant in K8s as every task can be performed through the client-server APIs using kubectl. So, all I needed was access to this API server from a trusted network in a secure way. Thanks to my friend @sarat, I got to know about sshuttle. sshuttle is quite unique in the sense that it’s not really a VPN but acts like one (for most practical purposes). sshuttle lets you access an internal network through a trusted node inside the VPC, without you having to deal with the mess of port forwarding or VPNs.

The basic idea is pretty simple, sshuttle starts a local python server in your host machine and creates iptables rules to route the destination packets of the specified CIDR blocks to this local server. At the server, the packets are multiplexed over an ssh session and sent to the server. The server disassembles the multiplexed packet and the routes them to upstream. So, basically this is a clever hack to avoid TCP over TCP (which again is a mess on unreliable networks). Multiplexed streams on ssh is just a single stateful TCP connection (as compared to VPN connections which are stateless). Now you must be wondering, how come the target server disassembles the packets. Yes, there needs to be some kind of sshuttle daemon running which does that for you. This is where sshuttle does some magic, it automagically deploys a python script on your target host to perform this task. So yes, for sshuttle to work, both the client and target need to have python and iptables installed.


sshuttle -r user@port x.x.x.x

All the packets routed to the CIDR block will now go through sshuttle daemon, since it configured iptables rules for them. Also, sshuttle starts a local python server on your host machine. You can see it using netstat:

$ sudo netstat -tunapl | grep python
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address           Foreign Address         State       PID/Program name
tcp        0      0*               LISTEN      27425/python

There’s a python server listening on port 12300 in my host machine. To actually verify, this indeed is started by sshuttle, you can use pstree -p | less and search for sshuttle. Here you can see sshuttle did indeed start a python server and the PID (27425) matches with the one we saw in netstat command.


You can even forward DNS queries with the --dns flag. This is super helpful if you have something like Route53 to host your DNS records on a private zone (for eg tld like .internal).

🔗Better than SSH tunnels?

Yes, you can also port forward with ssh using: ssh -nNT -L <local-port>:{upstream-host}:{upstream-port} user@remote

The problem with ssh tunnels is that they experience frequent packet loss on a normal WiFi connection and it’s quite frustrating to deal with them. Moreover, sometimes you need access to multiple ports in your private network which requires you to explictly provide them with -L flag which I find it as cumbersome. Also, you cannot forward DNS queries (over UDP) since ssh can only do TCP.

sshuttle has made my life so simple!


Tags: #Networking